King Khaled University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Acute compartment syndrome
Biography: Ahmad Alqahtani
Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the most serious emergencies cases in orthopedics and trauma cases. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment which impairs local circulation. We have analyzed associated factors, causes and complications in 79 patients with acute compartment syndrome whom we diagnosed and treated in Assir Central Hospital over a period of five years. In 77% there was an associated fracture, 65% of which were open fractures. Men were involved in 90% of the cases, 63% of which were under 30 years of age. In about 60%, the cause was road traffic accidents. The other 40% caused by fall from height, crush injuries, gunshot, snakebites and burns. Acute compartment syndrome of the leg, with associated fracture of the tibia, was seen in most of the cases (45%) followed by the forearm (25%). In the remaining 30% the thigh, foot and hand were involved. Seven patients had amputation as a complication of acute compartment syndrome of the leg, three of which were diabetic and hypertensive. No amputation done for the upper limbs. Infection (14%) and loss of function (10%) were among the complications of acute compartment syndrome. From this study, we found that young patients, especially men, were at risk of acute compartment syndrome after injury. When treating such injured patients, the clinical diagnosis should be made early to improve the outcome and lessen the complications.